Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis affects only the colon and rectum and causes inflammation and sores in the lining of large intestine (colon).

Our team offers experienced, coordinated care from providers who specialize in disorders of the digestive tract. We have an inflammatory bowel disease clinic that delivers comprehensive clinical care to those with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis by providing access to a highly trained team of experts in IBD management. There are personalized treatments through clinical trials and delivering the latest IBD-related information through education.

Treatments for Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis can affect everyone differently. We can help you find a treatment that is personalized and that will reduce your symptoms to help avoid flare-ups. Our team works with you through any transition for your continued care.

Anti-Diarrheal Medicine
Over-the-counter medicine can help control your bowel movements. If these aren't effective, your doctor may prescribe a stronger dose. 

Diet and Nutrition Counseling
Your doctor can work with you to identify triggers specific to you and get you on the road to a diet plan that best helps you manage symptoms.

Steroid Medicine
Active symptoms can be managed with a prescription of steroid medicine. This is often most helpful in mild cases of ulcerative colitis.

Surgery
For moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, a viable cure involves surgically removing your large intestine. However, because this condition can cause problems in other areas of your body, surgery may not cure those issues.

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What Is Ulcerative Colitis?

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that causes sores in the lining of the digestive tract. Irritation is found in the lower part of the tract, the colon (large intestine), and can result in open sores or wounds called ulcers. These ulcers sometimes bleed and make pus and mucus. The colon also empties often, which causes diarrhea.

UC affects men and women equally and seems to run in families. About 250,000 Americans have UC. People between 15 and 35 years old are affected most often. Most people have UC for their whole lives. About half have mild symptoms. Others have more frequent, severe attacks.

What Causes UC?

The cause is unknown.

What Are the Symptoms of UC?

Most common symptoms are pain in the abdomen (belly) and bloody diarrhea with mucus. Bowel movements may relieve the pain, which is usually on the left side. As UC worsens, diarrhea increases, and several bowel movements daily is common. Periods of remission occur, but more than 75% of people have relapses.

Other symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, and fever. Symptoms outside the colon include joint pains, usually in knees, ankles, and wrists. Eye problems may also occur. Complications include severe bleeding, perforation of the bowel, megacolon (dilation of the colon), and peritonitis (infection in the abdomen). People with UC also have greater chances of having colon cancer.

How Is UC Diagnosed?

The health care provider will review the medical history and do a complete physical examination. The health care provider will take blood and stool samples to check for bleeding and infection. UC is confirmed by colonoscopy. In this procedure, a lighted flexible tube is put into the rectum to look at the rectum and lower part of the colon. Colon tissue samples are taken and sent for study with a microscope.

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How Is UC Treated?

The goal is to relieve symptoms, control inflammation, and prevent complications.

The main medicines are antiinflammatory drugs, including mesalamine, sulfasalazine, olsalazine, and anti-inflammatory steroids (corticosteroids). Mesalamine is used to maintain remissions and control minor to moderate symptom flare-ups. Corticosteroids are for major flare-ups and to maintain remissions. Newer medications known as monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be very effective in people who have not responded well to corticosteroid therapy. Severe symptoms may mean hospitalization so the bowel can rest (no food by mouth), and intravenous food is given.

About one quarter of people need surgery, when medicines don’t work or disease is severe. Surgery involves removing part of the colon (colectomy).

DOs and DON’Ts in Managing UC:
  • DO take medicine as prescribed.
  • DO ask your health care provider if you should take vitamins, minerals, or iron replacement.
  • DO try to keep to normal physical activity.
  • DO see your health care provider regularly. Periodic colonoscopy is important to watch for cancerous changes.
  • DO call your health care provider if you get fever or chills, increased number of bowel movements, or increased bleeding.
  • DO call your health care provider if your abdomen becomes swollen, pain increases, or vomiting starts.
  • DON’T use aspirin. It increases the risk of bleeding.
  • DON’T drink coffee and alcohol in excess. Limit roughage (raw fruits and vegetables). These can make diarrhea worse.
FOR MORE INFORMATION

Contact the following source:

  • Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America
    Tel: (800) 343-3637
    Website: http://www.ccfa.org
  • National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
    Tel: (800) 891-5389
    Website:http://www.niddk.nih.gov/
    health/digest/digest.htm

Copyright © 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Ferri’s Netter Patient Advisor