Uterine/Endometrial Cancer

Uterine or endometrial cancer starts when cells in the inner lining of the uterus begin to grow out of control. This is often detected at an early stage because it frequently produces abnormal vaginal bleeding, which should prompt women to see their doctors.

Vaginal bleeding after menopause occurs in the vast majority of cases and should be evaluated by a doctor. Other symptoms of uterine cancer include bleeding between periods, an abnormal, watery discharge and pelvic pain.

Treatments for Uterine/Endometrial Cancer

Treating your uterine or endometrial cancer depends on the characteristics and severity of your cancer. This includes the type of cancer, its stage, your health and your preference. Surgery is the main treatment, but other options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

Biologic Therapy
This procedure uses your body's immune system to fight your cancer. This is done by either stimulating your immune system to attack cancer cells or by introducing agents it needs, like antibodies, to kill them.

Chemotherapy
This well-known cancer treatment uses medicines taken intravenously or by mouth to kill cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy may be given before surgery to shrink tumors, or after to fight cancer cells that have potentially spread.

Hormone Blockers
Because estrogen and testosterone help some tumors grow, hormone inhibitors can block them and prevent tumor growth.

Radiation Oncology
A team of medical professionals with advanced training deliver radiation treatment and care.

Uterine Cancer Surgery
The most common treatment for uterine cancer is surgery to remove the cancerous uterus and cervix. This procedure is sometimes done laparoscopically, through a small incision near the navel. Your doctor will tell you if this is possible for you.

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What Is Uterine Cancer?

A woman’s uterus (womb), between the bladder and rectum, includes the cervix and the body. The cervix connects the uterus and vagina, and the body is connected to the fallopian tubes. Uterine cancer is cancer that grows in the lining of the uterus. Cancer can start from the cervix or the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium). It can also start from the body of the uterus; these rare tumors are uterine sarcomas.

Uterine cancer occurs most often in women who went through menopause (change of life).

What Causes Uterine Cancer?

The cause isn’t known, but many things can increase the risk. History of pelvic radiation, taking the hormone estrogen without also using progesterone, and being very overweight may lead to higher risk.

Other conditions that increase risk are family history of breast or ovarian cancer, uterine polyps, hormone imbalance, and going through menopause later than usual.

What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Cancer?

Early symptoms include bleeding and spotting, especially after sex. Watery or blood-streaked vaginal discharge can happen just before bleeding or spotting. Often bleeding occurs after periods have stopped for 12 months or more. The uterus may get larger, large enough to feel low in the abdomen (belly).

Later symptoms, after cancer spreads to other organs, include pain in the abdomen and chest and weight loss.

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How Is Uterine Cancer Diagnosed?

The health care provider will make a diagnosis from the medical history, physical examination, and endometrial biopsy. In this biopsy, the doctor will take a tissue sample from the uterus and test it for cancer. Uterine cancer can spread to the bladder, rectum, and other organs. Other tests will be done to stage the cancer—find out whether it has spread and how far. Tests include Pap smears, mammography, blood tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography, and scraping the uterine wall.

How Is Uterine Cancer Treated?

Treatment depends on the cancer’s spread. Usually the uterus and tumor, ovaries, and fallopian tubes will be removed in surgery.

Then radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, cortisone drugs, and chemotherapy may be used to shrink remaining cancer and prevent spread of cancer. An oncologist (doctor specializing in cancer) will help in your care.

DOs and DON’Ts in Managing Uterine Cancer:
  • DO find a surgeon and oncologist with experience in uterine cancer treatment.
  • DO keep health care provider appointments during and after treatment to watch for side effects and return of cancer.
  • DO resume sex and normal activities 4 to 8 weeks after surgery.
  • DO realize that if you haven’t gone through menopause, you won’t have periods after your operation. You may have symptoms such as hot flashes if both of your ovaries were removed during surgery.
  • DO call your health care provider if you have abnormal vaginal discharge (smell, amount, color).
  • DO call your health care provider if you need emotional support.
  • DO call your health care provider if you have side effects of treatment, signs of infection (fever, muscle aches, headache), or new, unexplained symptoms.
  • DON’T ignore vaginal bleeding before or after menopause.
FOR MORE INFORMATION

Contact the following source:

  • American Cancer Society
    Tel: (800) 227-2345
    Website: http://www.cancer.org

Copyright © 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Ferri’s Netter Patient Advisor